• Strategies for Conclusions

    A writer may end with :

    1. an echo from the beginning of the piece [alluding to a scenario or anecdote used in the introduction] 
    2. a summary closing [a simple restatement of thesis with global connections, or 'So what?' connection] 
    3. close with a logical conclusion [pulls together opposing sides or opinions presented in the paper]
    4. close with specualtion or opinion [giving a piece of information or answers when conclusions are unclear] 
    5. a quotation or dialogue [using exact words of an expert or a conversation]
    6. a prediction  [a statement of what may result from the situation discussed in the writing]
    7. a follow up to a question [using a rhetorical or literal questions to stimulate further thought for the reader]
    8. a call to action  [ask the reader to take an action as a result of the points of writing]  

    First and last impressions are important in any part of life, especially in writing.The introduction is what makes the reader want to continue reading your paper. The conclusion is what makes your paper stick in the reader's mind.


    The conclusion to any paper is the final impression that can be made. It is the last opportunity to get your point across to the reader and leave the reader feeling as if he or she learned something. Leaving a paper "dangling" without a proper conclusion can seriously devalue what was said in the body itself. Here are a few effective ways to conclude or close your paper. (Examples borrowed from: English Works!)

    Summary Closing

    Many times conclusions are simple re-statements of the thesis. Many times these conclusions are much like their introductions (see Thesis Statement Opening).

    For example:

    Because of a charter signed by President Abraham Lincoln and because of the work of two men, Amos Kendall and Edward Miner Gallaudet, Gallaudet University is what it is today - the place where people from all over the world can find information about deafness and deaf education. Gallaudet and the deaf community truly owe these three men for without them, we might still be "deaf and dumb."

    Close with a Logical Conclusion

    This is a good closing for argumentative or opinion papers that present two or more sides of an issue. The conclusion drawn as a result of the research is presented here in the final paragraphs.

    For example:

    As one can see from reading the information presented, mainstreaming deaf students isn't always as effective as educating them in a segregated classroom. Deaf students learn better in a more one-on-one basis like they can find in a school or program specially designed for them. Mainstreaming is just that; deaf students get lost in the mainstream.

    Real or Rhetorical Question Closings

    This method of concluding a paper is one step short of giving a logical conclusion. Rather than handing the conclusion over, you can leave the reader with a question that causes him or her to draw his own conclusions.

    For example:

    Why, then, are schools for the deaf becoming a dying species?

    Close with a Speculation or Opinion

    This is a good style for instances when the writer was unable to come up with an answer or a clear decision about whatever it was he or she was researching.

    For example:

    Through all of my research, all of the people I interviewed, all of the institutions I visited, not one person could give me a clear-cut answer to my question. Can all deaf people be educated in the same manner? I couldn't find the "right" answer. I hope you, the reader, will have better luck.

    Close with a Recommendation

    A good conclusion is when the writer suggests that the reader do something in the way of support for a cause or a plea for them to take action.

    For example:

    American Sign Language is a fast growing language in America. More and more universities and colleges are offering it as part of their curriculum and some are even requiring it as part of their program. This writer suggests that anyone who has a chance to learn this beautiful language should grab that opportunity.